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Preface

 Pursuant to the long-term plan of the Editing Board madę at the end of September 2007 we are presenting to you - out Readers - the twelfth issue of Polish Journal of Commodity Science. As before, each paper contains a wide summary in both Polish and English. The summaries of all the papers published are available at our webpage http://www.tpj.pr.radom.pl. The set of nine papers published in the current issue of the ąuarterly is opened by the second part of Gajewski's work on TPJZ idea in commodity science. TPJZ is an abbreviation used to denote the theory of soMng invention problems. The first part of this paper was published in our journal, 4(9), 2006. As opposite to the trial-and-error method, the TPJZ is assumed to exclude wrong conceptions, which leads to the optimal solution faster. It is essential in TPJZ to overcome the mental inertia (inertia vector) caused by habits, education, experience. Although TRIZ is the engineering method, it is morę and morę often used in other sciences, in particular, in commodity science. In the next paper, Shiro Kurihara considers normalization and norm analyzing. This paper (with smali changes) is reproduced (with editor's permission) from Hitotsubashi Journal of Com-merce and Management, 2006, 40, pp. 1-18. The author analyzes the genesis and history of stan-dardization. In his opinion the world of norms has significantly changed within last two decades. The evolution of international norms imposed by changes in the functional environment is dis-cussed. According to Kurihara, testing of norms should cover wider rangę of problems, not only purely technological. The author concludes that there is a need to kwest in testing norms and in education in this area. The competitiveness, offer of uniąue products and creation of demand are most important problems facing managing boards of many companies. The paper by Slovak authors, Kollar and Knoskova, introduces problems of product management as new discipline in Slovakia. The results of the survey carried out in Slovak enterprises, concerning responsibility, competitiveness, experi-ence and managers' characteristics are presented. Analyzing the survey results the authors conclude that managers' characteristics are crucial in the business activity in Slovakian market. Non-enzymatic darkening of food processes, known as Maillard reaction, were investigated by Krejpcio and Kitts. The Maillard reaction is responsible for such features of food as colour and smell, for instance, baked bread, malted barley, whisky or beer. In some cases the reactions be-tween amines (e.g. amino acids) and carbonyl compounds (e.g. saccharides) contained in food products can lead to decolourization, loss of smell, changes in texture and to loss of nutrition value. In the paper the authors presented the results of the tests performed to determine the influence of conditions of Maillard reaction on creation of particular products of ribose - lysine reaction and on their ability to chelate cadmium (II) ions. The ąuality of cosmetics depends not only on their content and technology of their production, but mainly, on the ąuality of the raw materials applied. The new sources of raw materials for vari-ous products have been searched, particularly intensely, in the field of food surplus and waste in food industry. Thy consecutive paper by Sikora, Kalicka, Ogonowski and Grega presents the possi-bility of application of cow milk whey in shampoos. The shampoo samples were microbiologically, usably and organoleptically assessed. It was proved that whey can be applied as valuable compo-nent of shampoos. In the next article Bocho-Janiszewska and Bielska assessed qualitatively bath oils containing castor oil ethoxylates. The influence of concentration and type of the ethoxylate (the solubilizer) on physical-chemical and usable properties of soluble bath oils was describeded. It was observed that the increase of content of the solubilizers tested caused increase of viscosity of the oils and worsening of the ability to form foam. Testing of ąuality of household chemistry products is a subject of the paper by Sułek, Wasilewski, Zięba and Sas. The authors analyzed the possibility of application of microsphere, obtained in power plants from the flying ashes, as abrasive in household chemistry products. This proposal can be found innovatory, as up to now this waste has not been used in this way. The authors present the results of tests and point out that microsphere consists of spherical balls (diame-ters from 10 um to 500 um), filled with gas. The analysis of their properties reveals that potentially they can be applied as abrasive in household chemistry products because they will be gentler to the surfaces cleaned. Also, this proposal opens a possibility to dispose of this difficult waste. Morę than 100.000 tones of wastes from fruit-and-vegetable processing in Poland come from pomace. This is a serious problem for this branch of industry. Apple pomace is particularly impor-tant in this group. The paper by Borycka presents possibilities of disposing of this waste as renew-able, biomass source of energy in Poland. The author showed applicability of apple pomace and its mixtures with carbon for energetic purposes, concluding that apple pomace can be a cheap biofuel in factories, where it is produced. It was also proved that 20% addition of apple cellulose to carbon can profitably modify properties of fuel, in particular, ecological. The last paper in this issue of our journal deals with contamination of exhibits in museums as well as with microbiological security of historical exhibitions visitors. In this paper Szostak-Kot, Syguła-Cholewińska i Błyskał assessed microflora in the air of exhibit rooms of the Wawel Royal Castle. The results from two seasons allowed to confirm differences in the air composition. The results presented show domination of one species of fungi in particular season. This seems to be disturbing, as usually, in quantitative testing, higher concentration of microbes is said to be safe when they belong to many species, not to one. The twelfth issue of our ąuarterly journal ends with Information Column on TPJ. You can find there a report from the 9th International Conference "Current Trends in Commodity Science" which took place in August of 2007, in Poznań, as the IGWT symposium.

 We wish you a pleasant reading.

 Deputy Editor ofPolish Journal of Commodity Science
 Professor Ryszard Zieliński

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